Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF)


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  1. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF)

    Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters If you read first Wittgenstein’s Tractatus and then follow it with his Philosophical Investigations you will treat yourself to perhaps the most fascinating intellectual development in the history of philosophy Wittgenstein has the distinct merit of producing not one but two enormously influential systems of p

  2. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein

    Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters An offline discussion with Simon Evnine prompted me to reread the first few sections of this book which I hadn't looked at in ages They inspired the following short storyWang's First Day on the JobWang is a Chinese construction worker who's just arrived in the US He doesn't know a word of English but he figures he'll get by The important thing is that he knows construction work His English speaking cousin takes him to a buildin

  3. says: Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein

    Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen This is the first work by Wittgenstein I’ve ever read I’ve been terrified of him for years truth be told I’ve read a biography

  4. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen

    Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) I couldn't possibly do Philosophical Investigations justice in a review Even though I've read it several times I don't understand than a fraction of it The unworthy thought does sometimes cross my mind that its author didn't understand it either but you understand I'm just jealous because I'm not a Great Philosopher I would so like to be oneAssuming you aren't an aspiring Great Philosopher my advice is not t

  5. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF)

    Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) As a philosopher Wittgenstein isn't terribly systematic rather shocking for an analytic thinker I would argue that he's an original using analytic thought experiments continental literary examples pragmatic everyday life as a litmus test and Nietzschean aphoristic style attitude problem elements Hell I'm almost loathe to call it philosophy

  6. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen

    Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) o my crap what a tortured soul Ludwig Wittgenstein was this guy stared into the impenetrable pitch blackness that was the tangled midnight jungle of his own inner existence sharpened his machete and plunged in hacking and flailing and lunging wildly he wrestles chiefly with the concepts of language meaning understanding and states of consciousness part I consists of 693 short numbered sections about 4 to a page this was sent to t

  7. says: Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen

    Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) This book is too complex to summarize but here is a nutshell If you want to know the meaning of a word consider how the word is used Words are used in a variety of “language games” interactions among people which display “family resemblances” That is there is no single model which shows the essence of how words ar

  8. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF)

    Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein This book was assembled posthumously Wittgenstein having published very little in his lifetime Although usually coupled with the Tractatus it is actually representative of his thought and methodThe virtue of Wittgenstein may be that with him there is no hint of metaphysical conceit or self deception but rather a consistent treatment of reality as in fact various language games language being understood broadly to include everythi

  9. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF)

    Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) Exasperating but worth itThe syntax of the Investigations has a jaggedly Asperger’s feel to it Too often Wittgenstein sounds like a malfunctioning android jabbering its core protocols to itself pacing in frantic circles waving it

  10. says: Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF)

    Philosophische Untersuchungen (PDF) First off this book is only 197 pages long The reason Goodreads says it's 464 pages is because this edition is dual language One side is in German the original text and the other side is in EnglishCompared to other philosophical readings I've r

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Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen

Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Mbered for ease of referenceNew detailed editorial endnotes explain decisions of translators and identify references and allusions in Wittgenstein's original textNow features new essays on the history of the Philosophical Investigations and the problems of translating Wittgenstein’s text. This book is too complex to summarize but here is a nutshell If you want to know the meaning of a word consider how the word is used Words are used in a variety of language games interactions among people which display family resemblances That is there is no single model which shows the essence of how words are used but rather there are many overlapping and differing language games each of which is a different modelEnough summarizing Now to what I am interested in what I called once before Wittgenstein s behaviorism which I didn t like After reading the Philosophical Investigations I have come to the conclusion that Wittgenstein is not nearly as behavioristic as I had thought In fact he is the most introspective behaviorist that I could imagine but he still ends up being of a behaviorist than I likeWhat do I mean by behaviorism Wittgenstein is a skeptic with regard to meaning in the sense that he does not think that meaning is something we can look inside of ourselves introspect to discover As I summarized above Wittgenstein believes that meaning is revealed by the use of a word in social interactions in other words through language games the behavior of the people using the wordConsider words for what we usually think of as mental phenomena thinking believing remembering knowing and the like How can you tell if someone knows that Paris is in France If you ask him he gives you the right answer If he looks inside of his mind must there be the knowledge that Paris is in France Not necessarily He might not even be thinking of that and even if he were subvocalizing Paris is in France is there a mental uality that distinguishes that as knowing Thus Wittgenstein gives a formidable argument that knowing consists not in any mental phenomenon but in the behavior of giving the right answer In making this argument Wittgenstein has not avoided introspection as a techniue On the contrary he has used it extensively Even when he asks us to imagine a certain language game we are imagining a behavior but we are using introspection to do it Wittgenstein is a master of asking the rhetorical uestion which reveals how we use a particular word in social interactions but each rhetorical uestion reuires a looking into ourselves and our experiencesWittgenstein is not ultimately hostile to our looking into ourselves in fact I think he would regard it as a fruitful part of life But his basic point is that only when our introspected observations can be validated by being part of our interactions with other people our language games only then can the words have consistent and usable meaningsMy uibble with this is that introspection sometimes yields results than Wittgenstein is prepared to recognize As just one example Wittgenstein asks how do we judge time He says that we might sit for a while and say About five minutes have passed and we may be right He says that there is no introspectable experience of time passing or of measuring time But I am not sure if that is right Paul Churchland talks about a pulsing of neuronic signals from the center of the brain to the perimeter and back again This means that our sensory processing echoes and reverberates with these pulses and gives us a sense of time passing If we attend to the experience of this we may be able to discriminate what makes us sensitive to the passage of time and we may be able to do this in a way which can be validated by other people If we are able to make these discriminations through introspection before the science is available to explain it is it still meaningless That is my rhetorical uestion

Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig WittgensteinPhilosophische Untersuchungen

Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Incorporating significant editorial changes from earlier editions the fourth edition of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations is the definitive en face German English version of the most important work of 20th century philosophy The extensively revised English translation inco. This is the first work by Wittgenstein I ve ever read I ve been terrified of him for years truth be told I ve read a biography by WW Bartley III wouldn t you love to be the third I would stick the three I s on the end of my name too if I was but unfortunately I m only Trevor the Second The main memory I have of that book is of Wittgenstein waiting to be captured in WWI and him humming the second movement of Beethoven s Seventh That has always been one of my all time favourite pieces of music and if I was ever in a machine gun nest about to be captured or potentially killed by the enemy I could think of no better piece of music to be humming The fear has come from the fact Wittgenstein is known as being off the scale brilliant And so I just assumed he would also be too hard to read with him picking out distinctions I wouldn t be able to see even after he had held them to the light and turned them aboutThis book is in fact uite beautifully written The ideas are complex at times but he does all he can to make them clearThat said I also know I ve only skimmed the surface of this oneThis is a book about meaning it is a book about how language means and therefore the extent to which language allows communication between people I m going to jump to my understanding of Wittgenstein s answer although answer isn t the right word and that is that language is always socially situated and so you need to understand the situation to make sense of the languageA philosophical project prior to this was the idea of trying to create a language that could be unambiguous and purely logical one that could start from a series of axioms and then go on to recreate the world with each of its statements being verifiably true This is the sort of idea mentioned in 1984 that for as long as I can know 224 then and so on But then think of the word March You can say The best time to come to Melbourne is March or you can say The second movement of the Seventh is a slow march Clearly the fact march is a homophone is hardly surprising to anyone but Wittgenstein asks if even that is really true Can you say the month in the same way as you say the verb If you are meaning the month can you say it as the verb The point being that you might not be able to hear any difference between the two uses of the word at all and yet still feel in your bones that it isn t possible to say exactly the same sound while meaning the other This almost links to something he says comparing language to music an idea I think about a lot He says Understanding a sentence is much akin to understanding a theme in music than one might think I think one could spend a lifetime considering that idea and the practical expression of that thought is called poetry but it is also true of all language poetry just rubs your nose in itHe makes a similar point elsewhere when he says one might tell someone if you want to pronounce the salutation Hail expressively you had better not think of hailstones as you say it All of which makes me think of the difference between effect and affect which I think brings us close to the idea of the socially situated nature of language I think that for me anyway these two words are homophones in English unless I m using affect in the sense of affecting a pose although the dictionary seems to imply that affect is pronounced in the same way regardless of the meaning Still as the dictionary also says affect and effect are freuently confused Although also clearly they are never confused when we hear them only when we write them No one says did you hear that he said effect but he obviously meant affect so why not Or rather and to the point why do we distinguish in spelling what we don t seem to distinguish in spoken language A large part of me believes that this distinction in spelling is about stressing social superiority that is it is one of the endless rules designed to make clear that one has learnt the rules that one can display their learning and then presumably use this display to imply their higher intelligence These are things that make no difference to meaning but only to taste and as displays of social position When people get obsessed with the spellings of there their and they re this is purely about showing off one s academic capital and little else The fact these three words are homophones proves no one ever confuses their meaning when they are spoken No one ever says oh you said you want their lunch I thought you meant they re lunch The smugness you might feel when you see these mistakes in written form has nothing to do with meaning but rather everything to do with social taste and distinctionI think this is the idea Wittgenstein is alluding to when he says language is really language games not in the least that they are trivial uite the opposite the only games we can play in this whole meaning business are language games language derives the most important part of its meaning from the game we are playing at the time from how it is socially situated When I studied philosophy there would always come a time when someone in the class would say and in all seriousness you know what I see as red might not be anything at all like what you see as red we just don t know I wouldn t be surprised to find out that my face has a special twitch that it performs when I hear someone say this Wittgenstein spends a lot of time talking about pain in this book how it makes no sense for someone to wonder if they themselves are in pain for instance But since pain is like the red idea above that is no one else can really feel my pain and so no one can even know if I m not faking it how can we have ended up having a word for it Surely the word pain has to refer to something and that something has to be a kind of common knowledge but since I can only feel my pain how can I know it is common That is it is as if I have something in a box that you are forbidden to see and you have something in your box that I am forbidden to see how can we know if they are the same thing Wittgenstein does not say it in this way but I think ultimately these are practical uestions rather than ones that can be solved by logic How do you know that what you see as red I don t see as green Well the game that we call driving our cars pretty well answers that uestion There is much to this book than I can cover and much than I ve even understood so much of it reminded me of Saussure but also Chomsky he even talks of deep and surface grammar But this is a book of uestions rather than a book of answers

Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters

Read Þ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Æ Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Æ 7 characters Read & Download Philosophische Untersuchungen Rporates many hundreds of changes to Anscombe’s original translation Footnoted remarks in the earlier editions have now been relocated in the textWhat was previously referred to as ‘Part 2’ is now republished as Philosophy of Psychology – A Fragment and all the remarks in it are nu. As a philosopher Wittgenstein isn t terribly systematic rather shocking for an analytic thinker I would argue that he s an original using analytic thought experiments continental literary examples pragmatic everyday life as a litmus test and Nietzschean aphoristic style attitude problem elements Hell I m almost loathe to call it philosophy at all It s like a gorgeous dense glittering puzzle box I guarantee that when I read it again somewhere down the line I ll get something entirely different out of it Wittgenstein seems less concerned with presenting a systematic argument than in prodding the reader s mind

  • Hardcover
  • 592
  • Philosophische Untersuchungen
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein
  • en
  • 10 March 2020
  • 9781405159289